格陵兰岛不是你想买,想买就能买



这也许听起来像个笑话,但美国总统特朗普在买格陵兰岛这件事情上是认真的。


特朗普要买格陵兰岛?他在地图上找得到吗?


科普:格陵兰岛地处北冰洋和大西洋之间,是丹麦的自治领地,总面积超200万平方公里,是世界上最大的岛屿。尽管丹麦对格陵兰岛拥有主权,但它享有高度自治权,拥有自治政府。


消息爆出后,格陵兰岛政府自然是不干的,当即表示格陵兰岛“不供出售”。


Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen


丹麦首相梅特·弗雷泽里克森(Mette Frederiksen)更是称购岛想法“荒谬”。


遭到拒绝后,特朗普不光取消了九月初访问丹麦的行程,还对记者称丹麦首相“恶心”。


“丹麦首相说购岛是‘荒谬’的,还用一种非常恶心和讽刺的方式说出来……怎么可以说我的想法荒谬呢?她这么说针对的不是我,她是对整个美国说的,你不能对美国这么说话,至少在我在任的时候不行。”

"Greenland was just an idea, just a thought. But I think when they say it was 'absurd' – and it was said in a very nasty, very sarcastic way – I said, 'We'll make it some other time,'" U.S. President Donald Trump told reporters at the White House on Wednesday.


作为美国长期以来的盟国和北约成员国,丹麦为这次美国总统访问筹备了很久,然而现在被美国单方面取消了。


Hours before, the president announced that he would not visit Copenhagen next month as planned and accused the Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen of insulting the United States as a whole by rejecting talk of buying Greenland as "absurd."


丹麦前首相赫勒·托宁-施密特(Helle Thorning-Schmidt)说这是“对格陵兰岛和丹麦人民的深深的侮辱”。


网友们也坐不住了,掀起一波又一波热议。


“当特朗普建议我们买格陵兰岛,丹麦的表情↑”


“十二年后的格陵兰岛”


“听说美国总统不来了,丹麦人民洒下泪水。”


真开心,不用招待美国总统了。


Trump confirmed to reporters on Sunday that he was considering an attempt to buy Greenland for strategic reasons, calling it a "real estate deal."


However, Greenland rejected this offer with remarks "open for business, not for sale" and "April Fool's Day joke."


Greenland is the largest island in the world (excluding Australia, which is often defined as a continent), with a very small population of 56,000.


#1.


"Not the first time"


实际上,这并不是美国人第一次试图对格陵兰岛“下手”。


If you think this is some kind of crazy idea that suddenly jumped out from nowhere, you're mistaken.




This is actually not the first time that the U.S. has pursued the purchase of Greenland. Several such attempts have been made since the mid-19th century.


早在1867年,时任美国国务卿的威廉·苏厄德(William Seward)就提出了让美国收购格陵兰岛和冰岛的构想。


1946年,美国向丹麦提出了正式购买格陵兰岛的offer,表明不惜开价1亿美元黄金买下这座岛。


不过,这个offer被丹麦严词拒绝了。


当时的丹麦外交部长古斯塔夫·拉斯穆森(Gustav Rasmussen)这样说——


"[w]hile we owe much to America I do not feel that we owe them the whole island of Greenland."“尽管我们可能欠美国很多,但我不觉得我们欠他们一整座格陵兰岛。”

至此,两次收购格陵兰岛的设想都无疾而终。


不过美国对它的觊觎却并没有就此停止,这不,特朗普又想买了。


In 1946, the U.S. offered Denmark 100 million U.S. dollars in gold bullion for Greenland.


Almost 100 years before that in 1867, then Secretary of State William Seward, who negotiated the purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire that year, also looked into buying Greenland from Denmark.


However, both the attempts failed. But that didn't stop the U.S. from wanting to purchase the island.


So why would the U.S. president want to purchase Greenland – when about 80 percent of it is covered with ice?




#2.


Why Greenland?


所以,这个常年严寒、与它本名“Greenland”极不相符的冰川岛屿,美国为什么那么想要拥有?


有几点值得提一下。


While the U.S. president hasn't explained anything yet, there are a few obvious reasons.


"Sweet, sweet oil"


尽管格陵兰岛是世界上最大的岛屿,但整个岛上人口不足6万人,且超过80%的土地被冰雪覆盖,可谓是地广人稀的“秘境之地”。


不过,重要的不是地面上的东西,而是蕴藏在冰层之下的极为可观的自然资源。


据报道,仅格陵兰岛的东北部就蕴藏着310亿桶的石油储备,这几乎是丹麦所属的北海地区储油量的80倍。


不仅如此,格陵兰岛的铅、锌和冰晶石等矿藏也极具经济价值。


First, Greenland is widely considered to be extremely rich in natural resources, including zinc, lead, gold, iron ore, heavy and light rare earth elements, copper and oil. The fact remains that much of these resources are currently untapped.


而由于气候和生态方面的顾虑,这些资源大多未经开采。


不过,全球变暖导致近年来冰川消融加剧,仅今年夏天就出现了两次大规模的冰层融化,这无疑让开发格陵兰岛的自然资源变得更为可行。


这也让不少网友大胆猜测特朗普购岛意图——


“买下格陵兰岛,坐等冰川全部消融,自然宝藏尽收眼底?”


Geopolitical reasons


Thule Air Base


除自然资源之外,地缘政治的因素也是重要一环。


虽然当年没能买下格陵兰岛,但北约的成立以及美国与丹麦在1951年签署的双边防务协议,让美国得以名正言顺地在格陵兰岛驻军。


这就有了后来格陵兰岛上的美国图勒空军基地。


Thule Air Base


它是美国最北的军事基地,也是美国空军太空司令部和北美防空司令部的常用基地,扮演着北极地区军事行动和物流中心的特殊角色。


Second is related to the island's increasing geopolitical importance. The Thule Air Base, America's northernmost military base located on Greenland that was established during the Second World War, is now used by the U.S. Air Force Space Command and the North American Aerospace Defense Command, playing a significant role for defense strategy of modern days.


"The Trump legacy"


特朗普曾说,自己喜欢达成“大交易”。


如果能成功买下格陵兰岛,这极可能成为特朗普在任的重要政绩之一。


对此,CNN这样总结——


Third, as the CNN notes:


"Trump is a man very interested in his legacy in office. Buying Greenland would be a major bullet point on his presidential resume."



#3.


"Not for sale"


Source: The National Atlas of the United States


美国在历史上曾数次从他国买地:


  • 1803年,美国以1500万美元买下法属路易斯安那(Louisiana)面积达214万平方公里的土地,覆盖现在的13个州;
  • 1867年,美国以720万美元从沙俄手中买下阿拉斯加(Alaska),后者的资源和战略价值对现在的美国不言而喻;
  • 1917年,美国又以2500万美元从丹麦手中买下维尔京群岛(Virgin Islands)。

但格陵兰岛不是你想买,想买就能买。


正如历史上被严词拒绝的那样,就在特朗普表态欲购格陵兰岛后不久,格陵兰岛外交部就发了一条“尴尬又不失礼貌”的推特再次回绝——


"We're open for business, not for sale."

“做生意,我们很乐意。”


不过不好意思——


“真的不卖啊。”


(Sources:The New York Times, The Guardian, CNN, 环球网等)